Exhaustion of natural resources of the Territories
Exhaustion of natural resources of the territories surrounding a large city, changing the structure and parameters of the utilities - the formation of their systems goes not only beyond the urban agglomerations, but in some cases and areas. With the passage of time may significantly change the nature and distribution of industrial and technological links between the settlements of the agglomeration and resettlement areas.
The adoption of socially conditioned criterion for determining the integrity of the group system characterizes it as a universal urban development unit, within which may be combined and rationally planned by the vast majority of functional connections of the population as a major city center, and settlements gravitate to him the territories. Thus, within the 50-kilometer zone of influence of Leningrad is concentrated about 50 cities and towns. Gorki and Sverdlovsk - 30.
The spatial parameters of the group system should be considered as the maximum territorial unit, based on a combination of functional daily cycles of life of cities and populated areas within its structure. Outside tsentroformiruyuschee impact of a large city is reflected on the specifics of industrial production of formation of settlements, the development of regional production constraints (including intragroup), the engineering infrastructure, inter-settlement systems, cultural and community services, recreational activities.
In the border area of вЂ‹вЂ‹1,5-2-hour accessibility to the zone formed as a so-called functional collapse. Movement of people beyond the borders of this zone is oriented on the other, usually more closely spaced urban centers, forming contiguous areas of social and functional.